This is the latest edition of Blog written under KCO Blog Series (2nd Phase).  This blow if written by Mr. Ijaz Ahmed Tajjak, Supervisor Audit and Assurance Services. Ijaz sahib is well versed with Auditing Procedures and Methodologies. In this blog he has tried to briefly explain Audit Techniques. Please read this blog and appreciate the effort of Mr. Ijaz A. Tajjak.

Audit Techniques

Evidences are very important for an Auditor to form an opinion regarding financial statements. If Auditor fails to collect proper evidence, it will reduce the reliability of audit report. The method of collecting evidence is called audit technique. Following are a few important audit techniques.


When the Auditor verifies accounting transactions with documentary evidence, it is called vouching. Through vouching, the Auditor verifies authority and authenticity of records


Confirmation is a technique used by an Auditor to validate the correctness of the transactions; for example, an Auditor obtains written statement directly from debtors to confirm the debtors balance as appeared in the books of client.


Reconciliation is a technique used by an Auditor to know the reason of differences in balances. For example, to know the difference in the bank book of the client and the bank balance as appeared in the bank statement or pass book, the Auditor prepares the reconciliation statement. The same method may be used for debtors, creditors, etc


Testing is a technique of selecting representative transactions out of whole accounting data to draw a conclusion about all items.

Physical Examination

Physical examination requires verification and confirmation of the physical existence of tangible assets as appears in the Balance Sheet like cash in hand, land and building, plant and machinery, etc.


Analysis is technique used by an Auditor to segregate important facts and to further study their relationship.


By scanning of books of accounts, an experienced Auditor can identify those entries which would require his attention. It is also called scrutiny of accounts.


This method is used to collect in-depth information about any transaction

Verification of Posting

To verify posting from books of original entry to ledger account and confirm the balance, an Auditor is required to verify the postings; for example, to verify a sale book, an Auditor may verify postings from the sale register to the sale ledger. He may further calculate balances of the sale register and the sale book.


Through observation, an Auditor get an idea about reliability of the process and the procedure of an organization.

Ijaz Ahmed Tajjak